Meat production requires far more water, grain, land, and fossil fuel than anything else we eat – for example, one pound of beef requires 1,800 gallons of water. Given the upheavals of climate change and population growth, relying on livestock to feed a hungry planet is not viable. Fortunately, innovators are creating plant-based foods that mimic the taste and texture of meat, promoting edible insect farming, and developing new products that use insects as a primary ingredient. What incentives are needed to produce non-meat protein alternatives on a massive scale? Will consumers who can afford meat be willing to make the shift?