Attitudes toward gender are a cultural signature. Women’s bodies and their dress are subject to ideological interpretations; the labels “man” and “woman” are increasingly recognized as a social, not a biological, construct; and the boundaries of self-identity have become fluid. Within and outside Muslim communities, a veiled woman is variously viewed as a symbol of subjugation, communal identify, political defiance, sexual repression, or personal freedom. Trans people are celebrating personal liberation in some quarters while enduring ridicule or punishment in others. How does gender define us? How do shifting attitudes towards gender influence health and development?