Food is pleasure and a pathway to health; food is addictive and a cause of chronic disease. Red meat is bad; no, red meat is okay. Plant-based meat substitutes are a wedge against carbon emissions; yes, but these highly processed alternatives are packed with saturated fat and sodium. Food insecurity is a global crisis and agriculture is being transformed by climate change at the very moment that celebrity chefs are gifting us with their craft, and personalized nutrition is gaining enthusiasts. With so many conflicting messages out there, and almost eight billion mouths to feed, it’s hard to know what we should really be eating. What tradeoffs in the field and on our plates can maximize better health for all?